Perimeter Security Through the Ages
A Report on Development, Struggles and Modern Methods
Perimeter security through the ages
Today perimeter security is more relevant than ever due to stronger threat of terrorism, rising crime or corruption and significant increase in value of raw materials or technical know-how. But the origins go far back in time. Already in 9 A.D. the Roman emperor Domitian has built the Limes, which were used for military border security against the Germans. Or the imposing Great Wall, built to protect the Chinese Empire from attacks by nomadic horsemen. At that time the former perimeter security was already supported by "active messages" by additional watchtowers and patrolling soldiers.
Modern systems for outdoor monitoring and fence detection
Huge walls, palisades and manned watchtowers around critical infrastructures are of course no longer economical. Today, there are more modern and cost-effective solutions for active securing of perimeter boundaries. The variety of progressive sensor-systems on the market allows reliable monitoring in all types of areas. From microwave-based volume-monitoring systems such as WaveSec for extensive outdoor surveillance or seismic, radiolocation-free ground detection systems such GroundSec to fence detection systems such as MicSec, the range of systems offers solutions for almost all requirements.
The selection of the suitable system
The selection of the "matching system" and the optimum combination depends on various criteria. In addition to the type of risk, the level of protection, the offenders profile and the possible threat-form also contour and texture of the building or terrain are the decisive factors. Government buildings, military sites, nuclear power plants and other critical infrastructures require different security concepts than ports, airports and logistics companies, data centres, banks or even pipelines. Next is to consider what the systems have to provide. Should an alarm be triggered e.g. in case of an outbreak from a correctional facility and should false alarms triggered by wildlife, weather or other atmospheric interference be avoided? Therefore, among others a distinction is made between line and point sensors. Line sensors are able to detect a set of events on a sprawling terrain, while point sensors allow location-specific notification at events in differentiated zones.
From deterrence through to arrest
Depending on the requirements of the threatened perimeter, there are stand-alone or bus-capable systems available. The principle of an alarm based outdoor detection in the stand-alone version is as follows: For example, a sensitive microphone cable system such as MicSec from PPG is mounted onto a fence that needs to be monitored. Attempts of overcoming, such as cutting, breaking, climbing over, raising or crawling cause mechanical vibrations, from which electrical signals are generated. These are sent to an evaluator and analysed there. When exceeding a pre-set reference value, an active notification is created by a burglar alarm system and an alarm is triggered. This can be either acoustic, visual or personnel. Thus, the detection e.g. can be verified with the help of video surveillance and effectively supported by security personnel.
New threats require new responses
Today the security industry is facing totally new threats. Whether terrorist groups, such as IS, growing cybercrime, as well as risks from attacks, civil revolts and espionage by drone technology - new threats require new responses. Here the combination of systems for outdoor monitoring or fence detection, e.g. combined with modern video technology offers gapless, reliable security concepts to cope with new tasks. Also hedging with crash-rated High Security products like the internationally certified elkosta vehicle barriers is becoming more and more relevant. In the past, products such as wedge barriers or High Security bollards were rather used in military or political facilities, but today they are more and more often also used in urban or commercial areas. But precisely here, installation depths are often severely limited due to underground cables. But this is not a problem for elkosta - along with many other innovations, the products offer the shallowest foundations in the world and therefore can implement security solutions in environments that others cannot enter.